Search by BoMiProt ID - Bomi9963

Primary Information

BoMiProt ID Bomi9963
Protein Name Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein
Organism Bos taurus
Uniprot IDP18341
Milk FractionWhey
Ref Sequence ID NP_001159540.1
Aminoacid Length 390
Molecular Weight 44409
FASTA Sequence Download
Gene Name TGFB1
Gene ID 282089
Protein Existence Status reviewed

Secondary Information

Protein Function involved in various processes, such as normal development, immune function, microglia function and responses to neurodegeneration.TGFB1 directly binds to transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2), a type 2 transmembrane receptor, which in turn recruits TGFBR1, a type 1 transmembrane receptor, to the TGFB1-TGFBR2 complex, leading to receptor activation through the phosphorylation of multiple serine/threonine residues within its GS box, a conserved glycine and serine-rich region just preceding the receptor kinase domain.
Biochemical Properties Active TGFB1 occurs as a homodimer (molecular weight of 25 kDa) composed of two polypeptide chains, each containing 112 amino acid residues that are linked by a single disulphide bond stabilized by hydrophobic interactions.
Significance in milk predominant growth factors present in milk.
PTMs Glycosylation,Proteolytic cleavage
Site(s) of PTM(s)

N-glycosylation, O-glycosylation,
Predicted Disorder Regions 63-70, 88-101
DisProt Annotation
TM Helix Prediction No TM helices
Significance of PTMs Proteolytic cleavage of latent TGFB1, a large inactive precursor molecule within the golgi appratus by FURIN to form TGF-beta-1 and LAP chain.N-glycosylated. Deglycosylation leads to activation of Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1); mechanisms triggering deglycosylation-driven activation of TGF-beta-1
Additional Comments Plays an important role in bone remodeling: acts as a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts. Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of retinoic acid-binding receptor gamma (RORC) and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development. After proteolytic cleavage by FURIN,TGF-beta-1 is released from LAP by integrins (ITGAV:ITGB6 or ITGAV:ITGB8): integrin-binding to LAP stabilizes an alternative conformation of the LAP bowtie tail and results in distortion of the LAP chain and subsequent release of the active TGF-beta-1.
Bibliography Abdel Mouti M, Pauklin S. TGFB1/INHBA Homodimer/Nodal-SMAD2/3 Signaling Network: A Pivotal Molecular Target in PDAC Treatment. Mol Ther. 2021 Mar 3;29(3):920-936. doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Jan 9. PMID: 33429081; PMCID: PMC7934636.