|Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein
|Ref Sequence ID
|Protein Existence Status
|involved in various processes, such as normal development, immune function, microglia function and responses to neurodegeneration.TGFB1 directly binds to transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2), a type 2 transmembrane receptor, which in turn recruits TGFBR1, a type 1 transmembrane receptor, to the TGFB1-TGFBR2 complex, leading to receptor activation through the phosphorylation of multiple serine/threonine residues within its GS box, a conserved glycine and serine-rich region just preceding the receptor kinase domain.
|Active TGFB1 occurs as a homodimer (molecular weight of 25 kDa) composed of two polypeptide chains, each containing 112 amino acid residues that are linked by a single disulphide bond stabilized by hydrophobic interactions.
|Significance in milk
|predominant growth factors present in milk.
| Site(s) of PTM(s)
|>sp|P18341|TGFB1_BOVIN Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein OS=Bos taurus OX=9913 GN=TGFB1 PE=1 SV=2 MPPSGLRLLPLLLPLLWLLMLTPGRPVAGLSTCKTIDMELVKRKRIEAIRGQILSKLRLA SPPSQGDVPPGPLPEAILALYN*82STRDRVAGESAETEPEPEADYYAKEVTRVLMVEYGNKI YDKMKSSSHSIYMFFN*136TSELREAVPEPVLLSRADVRLLRLKLKVEQHVELYQKYSN*176NSWR YLSNRLLAPSDSPEWLSFDVTGVVRQWLTRREEIEGFRLSAHCSCDSKDNTLQVDINGFS SGRRGDLATIHGMNRPFLLLMATPLERAQHLHSSRHRRALDTNYCFSSTEKNCCVRQLYI DFRKDLGWKWIHEPKGYHANFCLGPCPYIWSLDTQYSKVLALYNQHNPGASAAPCCVPQA LEPLPIVYYVGRKPKVEQLSNMIVRSCKCS
|Predicted Disorder Regions
|TM Helix Prediction
|No TM helices
|Significance of PTMs
|Proteolytic cleavage of latent TGFB1, a large inactive precursor molecule within the golgi appratus by FURIN to form TGF-beta-1 and LAP chain.N-glycosylated. Deglycosylation leads to activation of Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1); mechanisms triggering deglycosylation-driven activation of TGF-beta-1
|Plays an important role in bone remodeling: acts as a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts. Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of retinoic acid-binding receptor gamma (RORC) and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development. After proteolytic cleavage by FURIN,TGF-beta-1 is released from LAP by integrins (ITGAV:ITGB6 or ITGAV:ITGB8): integrin-binding to LAP stabilizes an alternative conformation of the LAP bowtie tail and results in distortion of the LAP chain and subsequent release of the active TGF-beta-1.
|Abdel Mouti M, Pauklin S. TGFB1/INHBA Homodimer/Nodal-SMAD2/3 Signaling Network: A Pivotal Molecular Target in PDAC Treatment. Mol Ther. 2021 Mar 3;29(3):920-936. doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Jan 9. PMID: 33429081; PMCID: PMC7934636.