|Ref Sequence ID||NP_777252.1|
|Protein Existence Status||Reviewed: Experimental evidence at protein level|
|Protein Function||smallest natural bovine cathelicidin; intermediate antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations; inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa biofilm formation at 16 μg/mL; anti-endotoxin activities, including inhibition of LPS-induced cytokine synthesis in leukocytes; At high concentrations, indolicidin becomes membranolytic, translocating across mammalian membranes to interact with internal cellular targets; potent fungicidal activity, including against C. neoformans, C. albicans;|
|Biochemical Properties||proline and tryptophan-rich; highest tryptophan concentration of bovine cathelicidins; indolicidin displaces stabilizing divalent cations from the surface of LPS, which disrupts the bacterial outer membrane|
|Significance in milk||initial response of the mammary epithelium to microbial infection|
| Site(s) of PTM(s) |
|CATH|| Matched CATH superfamily |
|Predicted Disorder Regions||NA|
|TM Helix Prediction||1TMH; (13-31)|
|Significance of PTMs||Antimicrobial peptides and upregulated in mastitis|
|PDB ID||1G89, 1G8C, 1HR1, 1QX9, 1QXQ, 5ZVF, 5ZVN,|
|Bibliography||1. Falla, T. J., Karunaratne, D. N., and Hancock, R. E. (1996) Mode of action of the antimicrobial peptide indolicidin. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 19298–19303. |
2. Pompilio, A., Scocchi, M., Pomponio, S., Guida, F., Di Primio, A., Fiscarelli, E., Gennaro, R., and Di Bonaventura, G. (2011) Antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of cathelicidin peptides against pathogens isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. Peptides 32, 1807–1814.
3. Sahoo, B. R. and Fujiwara, T. (2016) Membrane Mediated Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activity of Cathelicidin 6: Structural Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulation on Multi-Microsecond Scale. PLoS One 11, e0158702.
4. Das, H., Sharma, B., and Kumar, A. (2006) Cloning and characterization of novel cathelicidin cDNA sequence of Bubalus bubalis homologous to Bos taurus cathelicidin-4. DNA Seq. 17, 407–414.
5. Falla, T. J., Karunaratne, D. N., and Hancock, R. E. (1996) Mode of action of the antimicrobial peptide indolicidin. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 19298–19303.
6. Bowdish, D. M. E., Davidson, D. J., Scott, M. G., and Hancock, R. E. W. (2005) Immunomodulatory Activities of Small Host Defense Peptides. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49, 1727–1732.
7. Benincasa, M., Scocchi, M., Pacor, S., Tossi, A., Nobili, D., Basaglia, G., Busetti, M., and Gennaro, R. (2006) Fungicidal activity of five cathelicidin peptides against clinically isolated yeasts. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 58, 950–959