|Ref Sequence Id||NP_001068908.1|
|Amino Acid Lenth||762|
|Protein Existence Status||Reviewed: Experimental evidence at transcript level|
|Presence in other biological fluids/tissue/cells||detectable in adult brain, lung, kidney, testis, and spleen; preferentially expressed by dendritic cells|
|Protein Function||Emaphorins are a large family of secreted and membrane bound glycoproteins, initially implicated in axon guidance and neural development; class IV are transmembrane proteins; plays an important role in the immune systemby inducing T cell activation; regulate angiogenesis; potential player for the allergic airway inflammatory diseases; regulates the function of dendritic cells and T lymphocytes and inhibits EC migration and experimental angiogenesis|
|Biochemical Properties||Become soluble after proteolytic cleavage; may be both chemorepellent and chemoattractive on endothelial cells|
|Significance in milk||Mastitis induces forebrain embryonic zinc finger-like (FEZL) expression in mammary glands, and induced FEZL promotes expression of the axon-attracting molecule semaphorin 5A (SEMA5A) through a GCAG sequence; FEZL also induces SEMA5A expression in susceptible cattle but at a lower level than in resistant cattle; control both neuronal development and innate immunity|
|PTMs||Glycosylated: consensus N-linked glycosylation sites a found in semaphorin 3F in the human nervous system|
|Bibliography||1. Meda, C. et al. (2012) ‘Semaphorin 4A Exerts a Proangiogenic Effect by Enhancing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Expression in Macrophages’, The Journal of Immunology, 188(8), pp. 4081–4092. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1101435. |
2. Toyofuku, T. et al. (2007) ‘Semaphorin-4A, an activator for T-cell-mediated immunity, suppresses angiogenesis via Plexin-D1’, The EMBO Journal, 26(5), pp. 1373–1384. doi: 10.1038/sj.emboj.7601589.
3. Lu, N. et al. (2018) ‘Human Semaphorin-4A drives Th2 responses by binding to receptor ILT-4’, Nature Communications. Nature Publishing Group, 9(1), p. 742. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03128-9.
4. Sugimoto, M. et al. (2006) ‘Evidence that bovine forebrain embryonic zinc finger-like gene influences immune response associated with mastitis resistance’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(17), pp. 6454–6459. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0601015103.