|Protein Name||Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein|
|Milk Fraction||Whey, Exosome|
|Ref Sequence Id||XP_005204713.1|
|Amino Acid Lenth||471|
|Protein Existence Status||Unreviewed: Experimental evidence at transcript level|
|Presence in other biological fluids/tissue/cells||CAP1 is expressed in virtually all tissues and cells, whereas CAP2 is more specific and occurs mainly in skeletal and cardiac muscles, brain, and skin|
|Protein Function||major function is to remodel the actin cytoskeleton; CAP proteins are involved in many cellular processes, directly or indirectly, through the regulation of actin dynamics and the cytoskeleton remodeling processes|
|Biochemical Properties||In yeast, the N terminal domain of CAP participates in the Ras signaling pathway through binding to adenylate cyclase, an enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes ATP formation in the presence of Mg2+ with production of pyrophosphoric acid and cAMP;|
|Significance in milk||negatively regulate milk synthesis and proliferation of mammary epithelial cells via the PI3K‐mTOR/SREBP‐1c/Cyclin D1 signalling pathway|
|Bibliography||1. Xie, S., Shen, C., Tan, M., Li, M., Song, X., & Wang, C. (2017). Systematic analysis of gene expression alterations and clinical outcomes of adenylate cyclase-associated protein in cancer. Oncotarget, 8(16), 27216–27239. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.16111. |
2. Hubberstey, A., Yu, G., Loewith, R., Lakusta, C., & Young, D. (1996). Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 61(3), 459–466. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4644(19960601)61:3<459::AID-JCB13>3.0.CO;2-E.
3. Zhang, H., Ghai, P., Wu, H., Wang, C., Field, J., & Zhou, G. L. (2013). Mammalian adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) regulates cofilin function, the actin cytoskeleton, and cell adhesion. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288(29), 20966–20977. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M113.484535.
4. Jansen, S., Collins, A., Golden, L., Sokolova, O., & Goode, B. L. (2014). Structure and mechanism of mouse cyclase-associated protein (CAP1) in regulating actin dynamics. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289(44), 30732–30742. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.601765.
5. Yuan, X., Zhen, Z., Zhang, M., Yu, Y., Gao, X., & Ao, J.-X. (2019). Cyclase-associated protein 1 is a key negative regulator of milk synthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells. Cell Biochemistry and Function, 37(3), 185–192. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbf.3387.