|Protein Name||Transforming growth factor beta-2|
|Ref Sequence Id||NP_001106723.1|
|Amino Acid Lenth||414|
|Protein Existence Status||Reviewed: Experimental evidence at protein level|
|Protein Function||maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in the bone tissue; leading role in the fracture healing process; induces chondrogenesis and osteogenesis; potent inhibitor of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation|
|Biochemical Properties||A dimer; a compact, globular conformation; single interchain disulfide bridge, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between the two chains are of major importance in stabilizing the dimer; TßRIII shows affinity to all three TGFß forms and the highest to TGFß2; low pH activates TGFß2; TGF-8 directly induces an H-chain class switch which results in the expression of secretory IgA in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell cultures|
|Significance in milk||have inhibitory effects on [3H]thymidine uptake by concanavalin-A-stimulated thymocytes; found in milk MFG and has immunosuppressive effects; important roles in the regulation of growth and differentiation processes in the foetus, neonate and adult and leads us to speculate on the function of these molecules in milk; regulate growth and differentiation of the intestinal epithelia from the lumenal surface of the neonatal gut in the early days following birth|
|Additional Comments||TGFß2 RNAand TGFß3 RNA levels are the highest on the 7th day of the fracture|
|Bibliography||1. Daopin, S., Piez, K. A., Ogawa, Y., & Davies, D. R. (1992). Crystal structure of transforming growth factor-beta 2: an unusual fold for the superfamily. Science (New York, N.Y.), 257(5068), 369–373. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1631557. |
2. Joyce, M. E., Roberts, A. B., Sporn, M. B., & Bolander, M. E. (1990). Transforming growth factor-beta and the initiation of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in the rat femur. The Journal of Cell Biology, 110(6), 2195–2207. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.110.6.2195.
3. Cho, T.-J., Gerstenfeld, L. C., & Einhorn, T. A. (2002). Differential temporal expression of members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily during murine fracture healing. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 17(3), 513–520. https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2002.17.3.513.
4. Cox, D. A., & Bürk, R. R. (1991). Isolation and characterisation of milk growth factor, a transforming-growth-factor-beta 2-related polypeptide, from bovine milk. European Journal of Biochemistry, 197(2), 353–358. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb15918.x.
5. Javelaud, D., & Mauviel, A. (2004). Mammalian transforming growth factor-betas: Smad signaling and physio-pathological roles. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 36(7), 1161–1165. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1357-2725(03)00255-3