Search by BoMiProt ID - Bomi105

Primary Information

BoMiProt ID Bomi105
Protein Name Beta-casein
Organism Bos taurus
Uniprot IdP02666
Milk FractionWhey
Amino Acid Lenth 224
Molecular Weight 25107
Fasta Sequence
Gene Name CSN2
Protein Existence Status Reviewed: Experimental evidence at protein level

Secondry Information

Endogenous/Bioactive peptides - Fragment - Sequence - Effect ß casomorphin-11 - 60–70 - YPFPGPIPNSL - Opioid Ref
ß casomorphin-7 - 60–66 - YPFPGPI - Opioid ACE Inhibitory, Immunomodulatory Ref
ß casomorphin-5 - 60–64 - YPFPG - Opioid ACE Inhibitory Ref
ß casokinin-7 - 177–183 - AVPYPQR - ACE Inhibitory Ref
ß casokinin-10 - 193–202 YQQPVLGPVR - ACE Inhibitory, Immunomodulatory Ref
169–175 - KVLPVPQ - ACE inhibition Ref
Immunopeptide - 63–68 - PGPIPN - Immunomodulatory Ref
Immunopeptide - 191–193 - LLY - Immunomodulatory Ref
ß casochemotide -1114–118 - YPVEP - Immunomodulatory Ref
210–221 - EPVLGPVRGPFP - ACE-inhibition Ref
Caseinophosphopeptide - (1–25)4P -RELEELNVPGEIVESLSSSEESITR - Ca++ binding Ref
Protein Function ß-caseinomorph stimulate human lymphocyte T proliferation in vitro; ha cytomodulatory properties; enhances nutritional quality in food becausenof high lysine content; film-forming properties of casein may also be used, either as coatings or to reduce oil absorption during the cooking/frying stage in preparing the food
Biochemical Properties ß-caseinomorph, a peptide originating from ß-casein is very stable with regard to enzymatic degradation; a substrate for dipeptidyl peptidase IV; exhibits a strong opioid activity; insoluble at pH 4.6; coagulable following specifi c, limited proteolysis; pH 6.7 may be heated at 100ºC for 24 h without coagulation and withstands heating at 140ºC for up to 20–25 min; casein can be precipitated by any of several salts, usually by (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at 260 g/L or saturated NaCl; high levels of proline; lack of α - and β -structures; low in sulfur
Significance in milk prime source of calcium and phosphorus for the neonate; antigen capable of inducing a prolonged immune response. Increased levels of casein antibodies have been found in individuals with schizophrenia before and after diagnosis
PTMs Phosphorylated; presence of 5 phosphates in bovine; site of phosphorylation: Ser-Xxx-Glu/pSer; of 12 genetic variants of β -casein in bovine only two variants appear to have altered phosphorylation; Equine β -casein shows variation in phosphorylation, with typically 3 to 7 phosphates on full-length β -casein; the β -casein of human milk exists as six different forms with 0 to 5 phosphates; Ovine β -casein has variable phosphorylation, with 0 to 7 phosphates
Site(s) of PTM(s)

N-glycosylation, O-glycosylation,
>sp|P02666|CASB_BOVIN Beta-casein OS=Bos taurus OX=9913 GN=CSN2 PE=1 SV=2
Bibliography 1. Niebuhr, D. W., Li, Y., Cowan, D. N., Weber, N. S., Fisher, J. A., Ford, G. M., & Yolken, R. (2011). Association between bovine casein antibody and new onset schizophrenia among US military personnel. Schizophrenia Research, 128(1–3), 51–55.
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12. Meisel H. Chemical characterization and opioid activity of an exorphin isolated from in vivo digests of casein. FEBS Lett. 1986 Feb 17;196(2):223–7.