|Ref Sequence Id||NP_776953.1|
|Amino Acid Lenth||222|
|Protein Existence Status||Reviewed: Experimental evidence at protein level|
|Endogenous/Bioactive peptides - Fragment - Sequence - Effect||94–103 - QKALNEINQF - ACE inhibition Ref|
163–176 - TKKTKLTEEEKNRL - ACE inhibition Ref
|Protein Function||Have unique antibacterial properties; angiotensin- I enzyme inhibitor; serve to dampen allergenic responses; formation of health-promoting dairy products; inhibit calmodulin-activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase; may be involved in promoting intestinal health and well being ; caprine caseins rich in αS2-CN offer enhanced sites for interactions with the common food additive κ-carrageenan|
|Biochemical Properties||occur primarily as a monomer with an internal disulfide; can form dimers with the chains either parallel or antiparallel to each other; αS2-CN is more sensitive to Ca2+ than αS1-CN with almost complete precipitation occurring in 2 mM Ca2+ for αS2-CN at pH 7; least susceptible to aggregation as initially purified from milk|
|Significance in milk||found to enhance calcium absorption resulted in the production of greater bone mass and correspondingly increased resistance to bone fracture in the rat femurs|
|PTMs||Phosphorylated; 11 phosphorylated serine residues; phosphorylated residues varies from 10 to 13 minor degrees of intermolecular disulfide bonding|
| Site(s) of PTM(s) |
|>sp|P02663|CASA2_BOVIN Alpha-S2-casein OS=Bos taurus OX=9913 GN=CSN1S2 PE=1 SV=2|
MKFFIFTCLLAVALAKNTMEHVS*23S*24S*25EES*28IISQETYKQEKNMAINPS*46KENL CSTFCKEVVRNANEEEYSIGS*71S*72S*73EES*76AEVATEEVKITVDDKHYQKALNEI NQFYQKFPQYLQYLYQGPIVLNPWDQVKRNAVPITPTLNREQLSTSEENS KKTVDMES*158TEVFTKKTKLTEEEKNRLNFLKKISQRYQKFALPQYLKTVYQ HQKAMKPWIQPKTKVIPYVRYL
|PDB ID||6FS4, 6FS5,|
|Bibliography||1. Spuergin, P., Mueller, H., Walter, M., Schiltz, E., & Forster, J. (1996). Allergenic epitopes of bovine alpha S1-casein recognized by human IgE and IgG. Allergy, 51(5), 306–312. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.1996.tb04614.x. |
2. Masoodi, T. A., & Shafi, G. (2010). Analysis of casein alpha S1 & S2 proteins from different mammalian species. Bioinformation, 4(9), 430.
3. Farrell, H. M., Malin, E. L., Brown, E. M., & Mora-Gutierrez, A. (2009). Review of the chemistry of αS2-casein and the generation of a homologous molecular model to explain its properties. Journal of Dairy Science, 92(4), 1338–1353. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1711.
4. Srinivas S, Prakash V. Bioactive peptides from bovine milk α-casein: Isolation, characterization and multifunctional properties. Int J Pept Res Ther. 2010 Mar;16(1):7–15.